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Bismillahe Rahmane Rahim


Salam Alaykum


The need for prayer:


,,I am the only God (while) there is no other God. Worship me and establish the ritual prayers (in order to) remember me.


The importance of the ritual prayer

Salat is one of the most significant and essential duties and obligations in Islam and is incumbent on every person who is sane and has attained puberty in all circumstances, even when he is engaged in a fierce battle or is endangered with drowning in sea. Although in such extraordinary cases, the ritual prayers are offered in a particulared and shortened ways.



A summary of the rules of salat:

,,Salat is the means of nearness for every pious (to Allah Allmighty).

Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (as.)


How to perform our prayers?


Presence of Heart:

Imam Ali ibn Musa al-Rida (as.) once said:

,,When you are praying, avoid being drowsy, slumberous, playing and hurried; pray with solemnity, gravity and soberness. It is upon you to remain attentive, humble and submitting in Allah´s presencestand in front of your Lord as a slave appears before his master. Keep your feet in order and your stature firm. Do not look here and there. Be as if you could see Him; if you do not see Him, He sees you.


Punctuality in prayer timings

,,You must keep in mind that all your affairs depend upon your salat. One who loses salat, loses other works more.


Types of obligatory prayers:


1. Daily prayers

2. The salat of special signs

3. The lapsed ritual prayers

4. The salat of the circumambulation

5. The salat for the dead body

6. The salat of the vow

7. The lapsed ritual prayers of onés father (and mother) to be performed by the eldest son.

In journeys the four-cycle ritual prayers become two-cycle ritual prayers


Preliminaries of salat


Before performing salat it is necessary for the person to meet the following conditions:

1. the body, clothes and place of the person offering the ritual prayers must be clean of ritual impurities (except in rare cases mentioned in the treatise of Maraji)

2. the person must perform ablution and if he is in a ritually impurified statehe must take a ceremonial bath (greater ablution). But in case he cannot perform ablution or greater ablution due to lack of water or for other reason then he must perform dry ablution.

3. If the worshipper is a man he must cover his private parts, in salat it is better that he should cover himself at least from navel to his knee. If the person is a woman she must cover her whole body including her head and hair; but it is not necessary to cover the area of her face which she has to wash in ablution, her hands upto the wrists and the top of her feet. Therefore, even the smallest part of the body or hair, if left uncovered, will be enough to invalidate the salat!!

4. The clothes of the person performing the ritual prayers must also be legitimate, wearing that they should not be confiscated ones. Also they should not be made from the hide or other parts of animals which are forbidden to eat or allowed but have not been slaughtered in an Islamic way. Apart from these, if the worshipper is a man, his clothes must not be of pure silk or gold.

5. Salat must be performed facing the Qiblah

6. The place where salat is being performed should not be unlawful (ie one must have the right or permission to use it), moving or rickety. The place of standing should be in level with respect to the point of prostration or in case of a slope, the tilt should not be more than four closed fingers.

7. Every salat must be performed on its specified time; dawn prayer from the first light of morning until the sunrise, noon ritual prayer from midday until the time it takes to perform the afternoon ritual prayer just before sunset; afternoon prayer from the time it takes to perform the noon prayer just after midday until sunset and the time for dusk and night ritual prayer is from al-Maghrib al-shari till midnight.


The virtue of praying early:


Imam Jafar al-Sadiq as. Has said:

,,The virtue of praying early for a believer is better than his wealth and children.

,,The superiority of salat performed in the earliest moments over the one offered in the last moments of its specified time is the same as the superiority of the Hereafter over this world.

Imam Ali al-Rida :

,,When it is time for salat, perform your prayers; you never know what will happen afterwards.


Ritual purity

Ritual purity implies that the person intending to offer salat must have ablution, ceremonial bath or dry ablution,

Imam Ali al-Rida:

,,Ablution before worship is for the reason that a servant of God should stand pure in supplication before his Lord, (for) he becomes loyal and obedient to his Master and is cleansed of impurities. Ablution removes slumber and sleep while preparing and purifying the heart for worship.


How to perform ablution?

Ablution involves the performance of the following acts in the given order:

1. The intention must be made: for the sake of obeying Allah´s commands one is performing his ablution

2. The face must be washed from the top of the forehead (where the hair normally begins to grow) to the tip of the chin and in width, the area covered by the tip of the middle finger and thumb (wide open) while washing one´s face.

3. The the right arm must be washed from above the elbow upto the tips of the fingers and it must be washed downwards. (not upwards!)

4. The left arm must then be washed in the same way

5. After washing the arms the top of the head must be wiped by the right hand with the netness of the ablution which has remained on the hand

6. Then the upper part of the right foot must be wiped by the right hand with the netness remaining on the hand from washing, moving from the tips of the toes to the mound between the toes and the point of the leg.

7. The left foot then must be wiped by the left hand in a similar manner

8. It is obligatory to observe the order of these acts, that is first the face, then the right hand, then the left hand, then the head, then the right foot and then the left foot.

9. It is also obligatory to perform all these acts one after another without long intervals between them and before the washed or wiped parts get dried. Before ablution there are certain recommended actions as well whose performance is most beneficial; like washing both hands upto the wrists, brushing the teeth, rinsing the mouth thrice with pure water and drawing up pure water through the nostril, thrice.


How to perform the greater ablution:


1. Intention

2. Washing the whole head, face and neck

3. Washing the whole right side of the body, ie from the shoulders upto the toes of the right foot.

4. Washing the whole left side of the body in the same manner. (This style of performing the ceremonial bath is called al-Ghusl ul-Tartibi ie, the greater ablution in sequence)




In the above form of greater ablution each part of the body must be washed in a manner through which it is assured that no part has remained unwashed. Therefore, the right side of the body is to include a little from the left side and the neck, the left side of the body is to include a little more from right side and the neck. The navel and the private parts are washed with both sides.

The greater ablution can also be performed in streams , pools, ponds, lakes, etc. by immersing the whole body in water and the water must reach all parts of the body momentarily. This type of ceremonial bath is called al-ghusl ul-Irtimasi.

There are causes, that make the ceremonial bath obligatory like Janabah, touching dead body, regularly bleeding of women, etc.


The dry ablution


Dry ablution becomes obligatory in place of ordinary ablution or greater ablution in the following cases:


-when there is no water, or the water is impure or usurped or its container is usurped or the vessel is made of gold or silver or the use of water is harmful for the person or when the time left for salat is so short that if he engages himself in ablution or bath he will miss the salat or the water is for drinking and if used elsewhere he will remain thirsty or when another honourable soul is thirsty and it must be given water etc.




Dry ablution is performed in the following manner:


1. Making the proper intention

2. Both palms of the hands are to struck simultaneously on clean earth (soil sand, stones, etc..) although it is better to use soil

3. Then the whole of the palms are drawn together across the whole of forehead upto the temples ie from where the hair normally grows to the eyebrows and top of the nose

4. Then the whole of the left palm is drawn across the whole of the back of the right hand from the wrist to the tip of the fingers

5. Similary, the whole of the right palm is drawn across the whole of the back of the left hand from the wrist to the tip of the fingers.

(Some jurisprudents consider it necessary that in the dry ablution which is in place of the greater ablution, the palms must be struck once more on the earth and the act of drawing the palms must also be repeated. They have also proclaimed that in dry ablution which is in place of ablution it is better to do the same)


Acts which invalidate the ablution


1. Urinating

2. Passing of faeces

3. Passing of intestinal wind

4. Complete sleep that renders the eyes and ears senseless

5. Insanity

6. Intoxikation

7. Unconsciousness

8. Janabah

9. Touching a dead body, ie any part of one´s body coming in contact with any part of the dead body

10. Regular bleeding, irregular bleeding and bleeding after delivery experienced by women


Things that invalidate the ritual prayer


1. Talking intentionally except for a reply to salam, ie the Islamic greeting

If someone greets the worshipper with the proper expression of salam, the person offering salat must answer the greeting with the same expression. For example, if the person says ,,Salam alaykum then the worshipper must reply as : ,,Salam alaykum. If however, the latter does not answer, the salat is valid and correct although he has committed a sin.

2. Laughing whether controllable or not

3. Crying loudly for the sake of worldly affairs whether the act is controllable or not, but if one cries due to fear of God´s wrath or for the love of Allah´s mercy , such an act is most desirable and praiseworthy and does not invalidate the salat.

4. Eating and drinking

5. Any action which disrupts the state and form of salat, like clapping, shaking the body or jumping

6. Things which invalidate the ablution

7. Deviation from the direction of Qiblah , ie to turn one´s back towards Qiblah or to turn towards right or left

8. Placing one hand on the other hand intentionally

9. Uttering the word Amin intentionally after Sura Al-Fatiha

10. Doubts in the number of cycle of obligatory salat that consist of two or three cycles. Similarly, in the first and second cycles of the four-cycle salats, (For further information look into the treatise of your Marji)

11. Performing more or less of the pillars of salat intentionally or unintentionally

12. Intentionally performing more or less of the parts of salat that are not pillars

13. Defying any of the requirements of salat like covering the private parts of men and the whole body of women


The pillars of Salat


Five things have been named as the pillars of salat, any of which if not performed or repeated where it must not be, the salat gets invalidated:


1. Intention

2. Takbirat ul-Ehram

3. Standing upright during Takbirat al-Ihram and before bending forward; that is one must be in a standing position before bending

4. Bending forward

5. Two prostrations


How to perform the salat?


The worshipper stands, facing the Qiblah and after Adhan and Iqamah (Adhan and Iqamah are not obligatory but very recommended as far as I know) he performs the salat in the following manner:


1. He makes a proper intention like, I offer my dawn prayer for the sake of closeness to Allah, although it is not necessary to say or uter these words

2. He says Allah Akbar which is the beginning of salat and is known as Takbiratul Ihram. It is recommended that while saying Takbir both hands should be raised near one´s ears. Similarly, in all the recommended cases of Takbir in salat like the one before bending forward and the ones before and after prostrating, the hands should be raised.

3. Standing upright: It is incumbent upon every person offering salat to stand upright (who is able to stand) while saying Takbiratul Ihram and during the recitation of Sura Al-Fatiha another complete Surah and the Four Extollments

4. Recitation : it is obligatory for the worshipper to recite Surah Al-Fatiha and then another complete Surah in the first two cycles.

5. Bending forward: after the recitation of the Surah in the first two cycles and after Four Extollments in the third and fourth cycles the person offering salat must bend forward and bow to the extent that the palms reach the knees; when in this state his body becomes still he must say at least once ,,Subhana rabbial azimi wa bihamdih" (=Glory and praise be to my Lord, the Magnificient) or thrice say : ,,Subhanallah" (=Glory be to my Lord)

6. in every cycle after bowing, it is obligatory to perform two prostrations. in the state of Prostration one must rest upon seven parts of the Body (forehead, both Palms, both knees, two tips of the big toes)

7. Tashahhud: ,,Alhamdulillah Aschhadu a la ilaha illallah wahdahu la scharika lah wa aschhadu Anna MuHAMMADAN ABDUHU WA RASULUH Allahumma salli ala Muhammadi wwa ali Muhammad"

in a ritual prayer of two cycles like the dawn prayer the Tashahhud is obligatory only once after completing the second cycle ie after two prostrations, while in the three-cycle and four -cycle prayers, Tashahhud must be repeated in the last cycle (after the two prostrations).

8. Salutations: "Assalamu alaika ajjuhannabij wa rahmatulllahi wa barakatuh assalamu alaiyna wa ala ibadillahissalihijn assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh" has to be recited after the first Taschhahud in a salat with two cycles and hast to be recited after the second Taschahhud in a four-cycle Salat (both while the Person is seated) (Für die richtige Aussprache sollte man sich die Sätze sicherheitshalber von jemandem vorsagen lassen)



a)Men in the dawn , dusk and night prayers must recite Surat-Al-Fatiha and other Surahs of the first two cycles in an audible voice

b) Men and women in the noon and afternoon prayers must recite the Quranic verses inaudibly.

c) the acts of a ritual prayer must be observed in their particular order, and in sequence without Long intervals



wa salam (mit Bitte um Korrektur falls nötig)

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